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Tattooed british sub dominated with anal. Deepthroat oral job stimulation and sex. Gay anime torrents. Xxx Video Hd Sunny Loi. Public domain movies adult porno. Met art big nude boobs. Watch Asian ring armour on leather PORN Videos In Russia there are three known varieties of mail and plate armour. These were adopted from Persiainitially as Persian exports [ citation needed ]and have Persian names. According to Bobrov [2] the first mail and plate armor appeared as cuisses in the Middle Eastand were imported by the Golden Horde. Persian miniatures of the first half of 15th century show different combinations of mail and plate armour with lamellar armor and brigandines sometimes worn with a single round mirror plate as breast re-enforcement. The first representation of mail and plate armour as body protection is shown in Persian miniatures, which show mail and plate armour Asian ring armour on leather of relatively large plates, worn with laminar pauldrons and skirt formed from long, horizontal platesre-enforced by a large round mirror plate. The first representation of classic mail and plate armour without lamellar elements can be seen in Baghdad's miniature which dates from From the end of article source 15th century mail and plate armour began to fully replace lamellar armours. The main difference between eastern European Russian and Polish and Oriental mail and plate armor according to Bobrov is that eastern Asian ring armour on leather versions usually do not have sleeves, while Oriental versions have sleeves the forearms were protected by Asian ring armour on leather. In Japan mail and plate armour is called "karuta", small square or rectangular rawhide or metal plates with the gaps between them filled with mail. The most famous general who used this type of armor was General Chonji. Watch Porn Movies Hot guys with facial hair.

Jaime pressly porn video. Armour of this type was introduced into India under the Mughals. Kalantar Russian: Georgian parade armour with golden plates. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For armour made entirely of plates, see Plate armour. For armors made from long metal strips, see Splint armour. Portal Category: Japanese weapons, armour and equipment. Glossary of Japanese swords Horimono Japanese sword mountings Japanese sword polishing Japanese swordsmithing Tameshigiri.

Retrieved from " https: Medieval armour Body armor Plate armour Asian ring armour on leather armour Byzantine military equipment.

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Nexx Videos Watch PORN Videos Oldies porn. The skirt was split to the waist, allowing the soldier to ride a horse. Matching vambraces and boots containing metal plates were also used. It was derived from Islamic armour used by the Saracen armies. These were often elaborately decorated with gold lace, silk and satin and are highly prized by European collectors. Tipu Sultan wore armour of this type during his wars against the East India Company. The Turks used similar armour during the Russo-Turkish Wars. Two complete suits of armour are preserved in the Hermitage Museum , Saint Petersburg. A type of armour very similar in design to brigandine, known as dingjia Chinese: It consisted of rectangular plates of metal, riveted between the fabric layers with the securing rivet heads visible on the outside. He also argues that Eastern European kuyaks and, supposedly, Western European brigandines originate from this armour. Dingjia brigandines were still used in China as late as the Ming and Qing periods. It was favoured by officers for its rich, expensive look and protection. Later examples, however, often lacked iron plates and were merely a military uniform. In Moskovy, there was a type of armour known as the kuyak. It is thought to have Mongolian origins [10] [13] and be analogous to the Central Asian, [14] Indian and Chinese brigandine armours. No known intact examples of this type of armour survived the tumultuous history of Russia, but historical depictions, textual descriptions and photos [16] remained. Some kuyaks had large "mirror" plates or "shields" attached to the outside. Some descriptions also mention cotton wool padding. By the end of the 4th century murals depicting horse armour covering the entire body were found in tombs as far as Yunnan. Sources mention the capture of thousands of "armored horses" in a single battle. Shi Hu 's bodyguard was said to have worn "fine five-colored armour" wuse xikai , which was so dazzling it blinded the eye. This was probably similar in construction to brilliant armour. During the Northern and Southern dynasties period , a style of armour called "cord and plaque" became popular, as did shields and long swords. Bright brilliant armour continued to be prominent. In AD, the Northern Wei court gave a visiting Avar chieftain a set of fine bright brilliant cavalry armour and six sets of iron cavalry armour. Deployment of armoured cavalry was common for the Northern Wei, especially among the "iron-clad" Erzhu tribe who specialized in armoured cavalry. In AD, the Western Wei general Cai Yu came to be known as "iron tiger" for his distinctive bright brilliant armour. In the 6th century, Qimu Huaiwen introduced to Northern Qi the process of 'co-fusion' steelmaking, which used metals of different carbon contents to create steel. Apparently sabers made using this method were capable of penetrating 30 armour lamellae. It's not clear if the armour was of iron or leather. Soft iron was used for the spine of the sabre, He washed it in the urine of the Five Sacrificial Animals and quench-hardened it in the fat of the Five Sacrificial Animals: The sabres which they make are still extremely sharp, but they cannot penetrate thirty lamellae. Northern Wei heavy cavalry funerary figurine. The Sui dynasty made prodigious use of heavy cavalry. Both men and horses were heavily armoured. The History of Sui provides an account of the "first cavalry battalions" of the dynasty's 24 armies. They wore "bright-brilliant" mingguang armour made of decarburized steel connected by dark green cords, their horses wore iron armour with dark green tassels, and they were distinguished by lion banners. Other battalions were also distinguished by their own colors, patterns, and flags, but neither the bright-brilliant armour or iron armour are mentioned. By the Tang dynasty it was possible for armour to provide immense personal protection. In one instance Li Shimin 's cousin, Li Daoxuan , was able to cut his way through the entire enemy mass of Xia soldiers and then cut his way back again, repeating the operation several times before the battle was won, at which point he had so many arrows sticking out of his armour that he looked like a "porcupine. Infantry armour became more common in the Tang era and roughly 60 percent of active soldiers were equipped with armour of some kind. For instance 10, suits of iron armour were captured during the Goguryeo—Tang War. Private ownership of military equipment such as horse armour, long lances, and crossbows was prohibited. Possession was taken as intent of rebellion or treason. If a deficiency was discovered, the corresponding soldier was ordered to pay restitution. Soldiers not on active duty were expected to pay for themselves, although "professional" soldiers were given tax exemptions. Li Shimin's elite cavalry forces were known to have worn distinctive black "iron clad" armour, [46] but heavy cavalry declined as Turkic influence became more prevalent and light cavalry became the dominant mode of mounted warfare. Tang expeditionary forces to Central Asia preferred a mixture of light and heavy Chinese horse archers. After the An Lushan rebellion of the mid 9th century and losing the northwestern pastures to the Tibetans , Chinese cavalry almost disappeared altogether as a relevant military force. Tang iron lamellae were between 9. Mail was already known to the Chinese since they first encountered it in AD when their allies in the nation of Kuchi arrived wearing "armor similar to chains". However mail armour was not mentioned again until AD when a tributary mission from Samarkand presented to the Tang emperor a coat of "link armour". Mail was later improved on during the Song dynasty to withstand arrows better, by which H. Russell Robinson believes meant using interlocked rings. Workers may wear up to 8 pounds 3. Scuba divers use mail to protect them from sharkbite, as do animal control officers for protection against the animals they handle. Shark expert and underwater filmmaker Valerie Taylor was among the first to develop and test shark suits in while diving with sharks. Mail is widely used in industrial settings as shrapnel guards and splash guards in metal working operations. Electrical applications for mail include RF leakage testing and being worn as a faraday cage suit by tesla coil enthusiasts and high voltage electrical workers. Conventional textile-based ballistic vests are designed to stop soft-nosed bullets but offer little defense from knife attacks. Knife-resistant armour are designed to defend against knife attacks; some of these use layers of metal plates, mail and metallic wires. Many historical reenactment groups, especially those whose focus is Antiquity or the Middle Ages , commonly use mail both as practical armour and for costuming. Mail is especially popular amongst those groups which use steel weapons. A modern hauberk made from 1. One of the drawbacks of mail is the uneven weight distribution; the stress falls mainly on shoulders. Weight can be better distributed by wearing a belt over the mail, which provides another point of support. Mail worn today for re-enactment and recreational use can be made in a variety of styles and materials. Most recreational mail today is made of butted links which are galvanized or stainless steel. This is historically inaccurate but is much less expensive to procure and especially to maintain than historically accurate reproductions. Mail can also be made of titanium, aluminium, bronze, or copper. Riveted mail offers significantly better protection ability as well as historical accuracy than mail constructed with butted links. Riveted mail can be more labour-intensive and expensive to manufacture. Mail remained in use as a decorative and possibly high-status symbol with military overtones long after its practical usefulness had passed. It was frequently used for the epaulettes of military uniforms. It is still used in this form by the British Territorial Army. Mail has applications in sculpture and jewellery, especially when made out of precious metals or colourful anodized metals. For these non-traditional applications, hundreds of patterns commonly referred to as "weaves" have been invented. Large-linked mail is occasionally used as a fetish clothing material, with the large links intended to reveal — in part — the body beneath them. In some films, knitted string spray-painted with a metallic paint is used instead of actual mail in order to cut down on cost an example being Monty Python and the Holy Grail , which was filmed on a very small budget. Films more dedicated to costume accuracy often use ABS plastic rings, for the lower cost and weight. The metal coats are used rarely because of their weight, except in close-up filming where the appearance of ABS rings is distinguishable. A large scale example of the ABS mail used in the Lord of the Rings can be seen in the entrance to the Royal Armouries museum in Leeds in the form of a large curtain bearing the logo of the museum. It was acquired from the makers of the film's armour, Weta Workshop , when the museum hosted an exhibition of WETA armour from their films. For the film Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome , Tina Turner is said to have worn actual mail and she complained how heavy this was. Game of Thrones makes use of mail, notably during the "Red Wedding" scene. Japanese Edo period mail jacket, butted rings kusari katabira. Close up of Mughal riveted mail and plate coat zirah Bagtar , 17th century, alternating rows of solid rings and round riveted rings. Close up detail of Mughal riveted mail hood kulah zirah , 17th century, alternating rows of round riveted rings and solid rings. Mughal riveted mail and plate coat zirah Bagtar , 17th century, alternating rows of round riveted rings and solid rings. Mughal riveted mail hood kulah zirah. The most famous general who used this type of armor was General Chonji. Japanese mail and plate armour in the form of a karuta tatami-do. Indian Mughal riveted mail and plate coat zirah bagtar. Armour of this type was introduced into India under the Mughals. Kalantar Russian: Georgian parade armour with golden plates. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About Chain mail 4 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References major reference In military technology: Mail armour development In armour: Premodern armour In armour: Premodern armour In military technology: Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. From the nature of their composition these "eyelet doublets" are rarely to be met with. They were made of twine or thread knitted all over in eyelets or button-holes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Instructions, Observations and Orders Militarie. The Armourer and His Craft. Philippe Contamine:.

Retrieved 18 February Archived from the original Asian ring armour on leather 1 May The History of Weaponry in Ancient Japan pp. Riveted Mail and Ballistic Gel". Armour from the Battle of Wisby Stockholm, Sweden: Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien.

Edge Asian ring armour on leather J. Arms and Armour of the Medieval Knight London: Medicine in the Crusades: Warfare, Wounds and the Medieval Surgeon. Cambridge University Press, Journal of Medieval History. Meat and Potatoes". Archived from the original on January 13, Straight Up: Helicopters in Action.

Belgium Sex Watch SEX Videos Ride Sexes. Written By: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The availability to mounted warrior elites of iron armour of high quality, particularly mail, was instrumental in the fall of Rome and in the establishment of European feudalism. Until the 10th century, however, there was little qualitative difference between the body armour of the…. The first practical body armour of iron was mail, which made its appearance in Hellenistic times but became common only during the Roman Imperial period. Bronze mail was impractical because of the insufficient strength of the alloy. Mail, or chain mail, was made of…. The advantage of chain mail is that it is quite flexible yet relatively impervious to slashing strokes though a thrusting weapon can force the rings apart in spite of their riveted closure. The Turks used similar armour during the Russo-Turkish Wars. Two complete suits of armour are preserved in the Hermitage Museum , Saint Petersburg. A type of armour very similar in design to brigandine, known as dingjia Chinese: It consisted of rectangular plates of metal, riveted between the fabric layers with the securing rivet heads visible on the outside. He also argues that Eastern European kuyaks and, supposedly, Western European brigandines originate from this armour. Dingjia brigandines were still used in China as late as the Ming and Qing periods. It was favoured by officers for its rich, expensive look and protection. Later examples, however, often lacked iron plates and were merely a military uniform. In Moskovy, there was a type of armour known as the kuyak. It is thought to have Mongolian origins [10] [13] and be analogous to the Central Asian, [14] Indian and Chinese brigandine armours. No known intact examples of this type of armour survived the tumultuous history of Russia, but historical depictions, textual descriptions and photos [16] remained. Some kuyaks had large "mirror" plates or "shields" attached to the outside. Some descriptions also mention cotton wool padding. There were also brigandine helmets called "kuyak hats" that used the same principle of construction as the kuyak body armour. Kikko is the Japanese form of brigandine. Kikko were used only relatively recently, during the 16th century. Kikko comes in many forms including, coats, vests, gloves, arm and thigh protectors, and helmet neck guards. Kikko armour was worn as a standalone defense or under other types of armour as additional protection. Strong projectile weapons such as stronger self bows, recurve bows, and crossbows could also penetrate riveted mail. The flexibility of mail meant that a blow would often injure the wearer, [47] potentially causing serious bruising or fractures, and it was a poor defence against head trauma. Mail-clad warriors typically wore separate rigid helms over their mail coifs for head protection. Likewise, blunt weapons such as maces and warhammers could harm the wearer by their impact without penetrating the armour; usually a soft armour, such as gambeson , was worn under the hauberk. Medieval surgeons were very well capable of setting and caring for bone fractures resulting from blunt weapons. Several patterns of linking the rings together have been known since ancient times, with the most common being the 4-to-1 pattern where each ring is linked with four others. In Europe, the 4-to-1 pattern was completely dominant. Mail was also common in East Asia, primarily Japan, with several more patterns being utilised and an entire nomenclature developing around them. Historically, in Europe, from the pre-Roman period on, the rings composing a piece of mail would be riveted closed to reduce the chance of the rings splitting open when subjected to a thrusting attack or a hit by an arrow. Up until the 14th century European mail was made of alternating rows of round riveted rings and solid rings. Sometime during the 14th century European mail makers started to transition from round rivets to wedge shaped rivets but continued using alternating rows of solid rings. Eventually European mail makers stopped using solid rings and almost all European mail was made from wedge riveted rings only with no solid rings. Wire for the riveted rings was formed by either of two methods. One was to hammer out wrought iron into plates and cut or slit the plates. These thin pieces were then pulled through a draw plate repeatedly until the desired diameter was achieved. Waterwheel powered drawing mills are pictured in several period manuscripts. Another method was to simply forge down an iron billet into a rod and then proceed to draw it out into wire. The solid links would have been made by punching from a sheet. Guild marks were often stamped on the rings to show their origin and craftsmanship. Forge welding was also used to create solid links, but there are few possible examples known; the only well documented example from Europe is that of the camail mail neck-defence of the 7th century Coppergate helmet. Very few examples of historic butted mail have been found and it is generally accepted that butted mail was never in wide use historically except in Japan where mail kusari was commonly made from butted links. Mail is used as protective clothing for butchers against meat-packing equipment. Workers may wear up to 8 pounds 3. Scuba divers use mail to protect them from sharkbite, as do animal control officers for protection against the animals they handle. Shark expert and underwater filmmaker Valerie Taylor was among the first to develop and test shark suits in while diving with sharks. Mail is widely used in industrial settings as shrapnel guards and splash guards in metal working operations. Electrical applications for mail include RF leakage testing and being worn as a faraday cage suit by tesla coil enthusiasts and high voltage electrical workers. Conventional textile-based ballistic vests are designed to stop soft-nosed bullets but offer little defense from knife attacks. Knife-resistant armour are designed to defend against knife attacks; some of these use layers of metal plates, mail and metallic wires. Many historical reenactment groups, especially those whose focus is Antiquity or the Middle Ages , commonly use mail both as practical armour and for costuming. Mail is especially popular amongst those groups which use steel weapons. A modern hauberk made from 1. One of the drawbacks of mail is the uneven weight distribution; the stress falls mainly on shoulders. Weight can be better distributed by wearing a belt over the mail, which provides another point of support. Mail worn today for re-enactment and recreational use can be made in a variety of styles and materials. Most recreational mail today is made of butted links which are galvanized or stainless steel. Body armor Vehicle armour. Ceramic plate Doron Plate. Banded mail. Portal Category: Japanese weapons, armour and equipment. Glossary of Japanese swords Horimono Japanese sword mountings Japanese sword polishing Japanese swordsmithing Tameshigiri. Retrieved from " https: Medieval armour Body armor Plate armour Asian armour Byzantine military equipment. Hidden categories: No actual examples of this type of armour are known from collections or archaeological excavations in Europe. It is sometimes called ringmail or ring mail. In the Victorian era the term "mail" was used fancifully for any form of metallic body armour. Modern historians reserve the term "mail" for armour formed of an interlinked mesh of metal rings. The Bayeux Tapestry has been misinterpreted as depicting several different types of armour. It is generally acknowledged today that virtually all the armour on the tapestry is standard mail armour and not "ring mail", "trellised mail" or "mascled mail" or any other Victorian misinterpretation. Chinese armour was predominantly lamellar from the Warring States period BC - BC onward, prior to which animal parts such as rhinoceros hide, leather, and turtle shells were used for protection. Lamellar armour was supplemented by scale armour starting from the Han dynasty BC— AD forward, partial plate armour from the Northern and Southern dynasties — , and mail and mountain pattern armour from the Tang dynasty — During the Ming dynasty — , brigandine began to supplant lamellar armour and was used to a great degree into the Qing dynasty — By the 19th century most Qing armour, which was of the brigandine type, were purely ceremonial, having kept the outer studs for aesthetic purposes, and omitted the protective metal plates. The earliest archaeological evidence of armour in China dates to the Shang dynasty. These were either breastplates made of shell tied together or a one-piece leather breastplate. Armour was exclusively for nobles; regular folks had no protection except for a leather covered bamboo shield. Armour in the Zhou dynasty consisted of either a sleeveless coat of rhinoceros or buffalo hide, or leather scale armour. Helmets were largely similar to Shang predecessors but less ornate. Chariot horses were sometimes protected by tiger skins. In the 4th century BC, rhinoceros armour was still used. In the following passage Guan Zhong advises Duke Huan of Qi to convert punishments to armour and weapons:. Ordain that serious crimes are to be redeemed with a suit of rhinoceros armour and one halberd, and minor crimes with a plaited leather shield and one halberd. A case should be delayed for investigation for three [days] without allowing arguments or judgements; [by the time] the case is judged [the subject will have produced] one bundle of arrows. Lamellar armour of leather, bronze and iron appeared by the mid-4th century BC. Lamellar consisted of individual armour pieces that were either riveted or laced together to form a suit of armour. One sample discovered in Yi county , Hebei Province was composed of 89 lamellae. The average dimensions of the lamellae pieces were 5cm x 4cm. In the 3rd century BC, both iron weapons and armour became more common. It was considered a common occurrence in ancient China for commoners or peasants to kill a lord with a well aimed crossbow bolt, regardless of whatever armour he might have been wearing at the time. Shun taught the ways of good government for the following three years, and then took up shield and battle-ax and performed the war dance, and the Miao submitted. But in the war with the Gonggong, men used iron lances with steel heads that reached to the enemy, so that unless one was protected by a stout helmet and armor he was likely to be wounded. Hence shields and battle-axes served for ancient times, but no longer serve today. So I say that as circumstances change the ways of dealing with them alter too. Armour was mostly restricted to elite guard units and each state distributed armour in their own ways. The state of Chu favorited elite armoured crossbow units known for their endurance, and were capable of marching km 'without resting. According to Su Qin , the state of Han made the best weapons, capable of cleaving through the strongest armour, shields, leather boots and helmets. By the end of the 3rd century BC at least a few horsemen wore armour of some kind. Warring States bronze helmet. The Qin calculated fines for more severe crimes in terms of one or two coats of armour, lower crimes in terms of shields, and the lowest in terms of coins. Dimensions of lamellae used for charioteer armour varies between the upper body, lower body, and arms. Lamellae on the upper body were 7cm x 6cm, the lower body 9cm x 6. Lamellae pieces on cavalrymen were 8cm x 5. Six groups of armour have been identified in the Terracotta Army corresponding to rank and military division. Ordinary soldiers are outfitted with no armour at all, cavalrymen with armour that covered the chest, armed infantry with armour covering the torso and shoulders, low-ranking officers with armour using large lamellae pieces, middle-ranking officers with shorter armour covering the torso and waist or just the breast, but with decorations such as ribbons, and generals with a distinctive coat showing torso armour and ribbons to signify their status. None of the terracotta soldiers have been found wearing a helmet or holding a shield..

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Lamellar armour

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Danjerous Porn Watch Sex Videos Adsforsex com. Articles containing Korean-language text Articles containing Russian-language text Webarchive template wayback links Articles containing Polish-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Articles with unsourced statements from July Commons category link is locally defined. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 10 October , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikimedia Commons has media related to mail and plate armour. Lamellar armour was often worn as augmentation to existing armour, such as over a mail hauberk. The lamellar cuirass was especially popular with the Rus , as well as Mongols , Turks , Avars , other steppe peoples, as well as migratory groups such as the Longobards as it was simple to create and maintain. Lamellar is pictured in many historical sources on Byzantine warriors, especially heavy cavalry. It is thought [ citation needed ] that it was worn to create a more deflective surface to the rider's armour, thus allowing blades to skim over, rather than strike and pierce. Recent studies by Timothy Dawson of the University of New England, Australia , suggest that Byzantine lamellar armour was significantly superior to mail armour. Lamellar armour has been found in Egypt in a 17th-century BCE context. Among finds of Assyrian armour often individual or unconnected scales , there are examples that can clearly be classified as scale armour [ citation needed ] as well as others that appear to be lamellar, and there exist a large number of finds whose function has proven difficult to determine. The extent to which either type was used is a debated topic. Lamellar was used by various cultures from this time up through the 16th century. Lamellar armour is generally associated with the armour worn by the samurai class of feudal Japan, although it came to Japan from Korea. Evidence of lamellar armour has also been found in various European countries. A padded undergarment was worn to protect against bruises. By the 12th century, mail was fitted to feet and legs, and to hands in the form of mittens or gauntlets. The addition of plates to increase protection for breast and back gradually evolved in the 14th century into complete plate armour, displacing mail. See also armour. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Written By: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Kikko is the Japanese form of brigandine. Kikko were used only relatively recently, during the 16th century. Kikko comes in many forms including, coats, vests, gloves, arm and thigh protectors, and helmet neck guards. Kikko armour was worn as a standalone defense or under other types of armour as additional protection. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Brigantine. For the video game, see Brigandine video game. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Arms and Armour of the Medieval Knight. Saturn Books, London, A Distant Mirror. Alfred A. Knopf, NY Russell Robinson 1 March Oriental Armour. Courier Dover Publications. Retrieved 20 February The costume of China, illustrated in forty-eight coloured engravings. Bulmer and Co. The modern usage of terms for mail armour is highly contested in popular and, to a lesser degree, academic culture. Medieval sources referred to armour of this type simply as mail ; however, chain-mail has become a commonly used, if incorrect, neologism first attested in Sir Walter Scott's novel The Fortunes of Nigel. Civilizations that used mail invented specific terms for each garment made from it. The standard terms for European mail armour derive from French: A mail collar hanging from a helmet is a camail or aventail. A shirt made from mail is a hauberk if knee-length and a haubergeon if mid-thigh length. A layer or layers of mail sandwiched between layers of fabric is called a jazerant. A waist-length coat in medieval Europe was called a byrnie, although the exact construction of a byrnie is unclear, including whether it was constructed of mail or other armour types. Noting that the byrnie was the "most highly valued piece of armour" to the Carolingian soldier, Bennet, Bradbury, DeVries, Dickie, and Jestice [18] indicate that:. There is some dispute among historians as to what exactly constituted the Carolingian byrnie. It was also quite long, reaching below the hips and covering most of the arms. Other historians claim instead that the Carolingian byrnie was nothing more than a coat of mail, but longer and perhaps heavier than traditional early medieval mail. Without more certain evidence, this dispute will continue. The use of mail as battlefield armour was common during the Iron Age and the Middle Ages , becoming less common over the course of the 16th and 17th centuries when plate armor and more advanced firearms were developed. It is believed that the Roman Republic first came into contact with mail fighting the Gauls in Cisalpine Gaul , now Northern Italy , [19] but a different pattern of mail was already in use among the Etruscans. After the fall of the Western Empire, much of the infrastructure needed to create plate armour diminished. Eventually the word "mail" came to be synonymous with armour. Mail from dead combatants was frequently looted and was used by the new owner or sold for a lucrative price. As time went on and infrastructure improved, it came to be used by more soldiers. Eventually with the rise of the lanced cavalry charge , impact warfare, and high-powered crossbows , mail came to be used as a secondary armour to plate for the mounted nobility. By the 14th century, plate armour was commonly used to supplement mail. Eventually mail was supplanted by plate for the most part, as it provided greater protection against windlass crossbows, bludgeoning weapons, and lance charges. However, mail was still widely used by many soldiers as well as brigandines and padded jacks. These three types of armour made up the bulk of the equipment used by soldiers, with mail being the most expensive. It was sometimes more expensive than plate armour. During the late 19th and early 20th century, mail was used as a material for bulletproof vests , most notably by the Wilkinson Sword Company. Mail armour was introduced to the Middle East and Asia through the Romans and was adopted by the Sassanid Persians starting in the 3rd century AD, where it was supplemental to the scale and lamellar armour already used. Mail was commonly also used as horse armour for cataphracts and heavy cavalry as well as armour for the soldiers themselves. Asian mail could be just as heavy as the European variety and sometimes had prayer symbols stamped on the rings as a sign of their craftsmanship as well as for divine protection. Yusuf Ali's translation. Mail armour was introduced by the Turks in late 12th century and commonly used by Turk and the Mughal armies where it eventually became the armour of choice in India. Indian mail was constructed with alternating rows of solid links and round riveted links and it was often integrated with plate protection mail and plate armour. Mail and plate armour was commonly used in India until the Battle of Plassey and the subsequent British conquest of the sub-continent. The Ottoman Empire used mail armour as well as mail and plate armour, and it was used in their armies until the 18th century by heavy cavalry and elite units such as the Janissaries. They spread its use into North Africa where it was adopted by Mamluk Egyptians and the Sudanese who produced it until the early 20th century. Ottoman mail was constructed with alternating rows of solid links and round riveted links. The Persians used mail armour as well as mail and plate armour. Persian mail and Ottoman mail were often quite similar in appearance. Mail was introduced to China when its allies in Central Asia paid tribute to the Tang Emperor in by giving him a coat of "link armour" assumed to be mail. China first encountered the armour in when its allies in the nation of Kuchi arrived wearing "armour similar to chains". Once in China, mail was imported but was not produced widely. Due to its flexibility, comfort, and rarity, it was typically the armour of high-ranking guards and those who could afford the exotic import to show off their social status rather than the armour of the rank and file, who used more common brigandine, scale, and lamellar types. However, it was one of the only military products that China imported from foreigners..

Ceramic plate Doron Plate. Banded mail. Portal Category: Retrieved from " https: Medieval armour Military equipment of antiquity Body armor. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1: Julian—Gregorian uncertainty CS1 maint: The History of Sui provides an account of the "first cavalry battalions" of the dynasty's 24 armies. They wore Asian ring armour on leather mingguang armour made of decarburized steel connected by dark green Asian ring armour on leather, their horses wore iron armour with dark green tassels, and they were distinguished by lion banners.

Other battalions were also distinguished by their own colors, patterns, and flags, but neither the bright-brilliant armour or iron armour are mentioned. By the Tang dynasty it was possible for armour to provide immense personal protection.

Unique sexy Watch Sex Movies blackgirlsnude. The advantage of chain mail is that it is quite flexible yet relatively impervious to slashing strokes though a thrusting weapon can force the rings apart in spite of their riveted closure. In the form of a simple shirt, mail was worn throughout the Roman Empire and beyond…. Charlemagne , king of the Franks — , king of the Lombards — , and first emperor — of the Romans and of what was later called the Holy Roman Empire. Bayeux Tapestry , medieval embroidery depicting the Norman Conquest of England in , remarkable as a work of art and important as a source for 11th-century history. The tapestry is…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About Chain mail 4 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References major reference In military technology: A large scale example of the ABS mail used in the Lord of the Rings can be seen in the entrance to the Royal Armouries museum in Leeds in the form of a large curtain bearing the logo of the museum. It was acquired from the makers of the film's armour, Weta Workshop , when the museum hosted an exhibition of WETA armour from their films. For the film Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome , Tina Turner is said to have worn actual mail and she complained how heavy this was. Game of Thrones makes use of mail, notably during the "Red Wedding" scene. Japanese Edo period mail jacket, butted rings kusari katabira. Close up of Mughal riveted mail and plate coat zirah Bagtar , 17th century, alternating rows of solid rings and round riveted rings. Close up detail of Mughal riveted mail hood kulah zirah , 17th century, alternating rows of round riveted rings and solid rings. Mughal riveted mail and plate coat zirah Bagtar , 17th century, alternating rows of round riveted rings and solid rings. Mughal riveted mail hood kulah zirah. The image depicts a method of removing a hauberk. Indian theta link mail bar link mail , alternating rows of solid theta rings and round riveted rings, 17th century. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Maille disambiguation and Chain mail disambiguation. Main article: Kusari Japanese mail armour. Stab vest. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Edo period s Japanese samurai mail socks or kusari tabi , butted rings. Edo period Japanese samurai mail gauntlets kusari han kote , butted rings. Ottoman riveted mail, alternating rows of round riveted links and solid links, 16th century. European wedge riveted mail, showing both sides of the rings, 16th to 17th century. Accessed 4 November Gabriel, Greenwood Publishing Group, P. Russell Robinson, Walker and Co. Krebs, Carolyn A. Notes on Turquois in the East. Archived from the original on Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. September Subscription or UK public library membership required. Fighting Techniques of the Medieval World. Thomas Dunne Books, , p. It has been claimed that the garment called eyelet doublet is not a form of ring armour, but an undergarment intended to be used under actual armour. The eyelets are intended as ventilation holes. It was known as a Schiessjoppe in Germany. However, Sir John Smythe, in , recommended that, "Archers should weare either Ilet holed doublets that will resist the thrust of a sword or a dagger and covered with some trim and gallant kinde of coloured cloth to the liking of the captain From the nature of their composition these "eyelet doublets" are rarely to be met with. They were made of twine or thread knitted all over in eyelets or button-holes. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 10 October , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikimedia Commons has media related to mail and plate armour. This was a very time consuming process. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: It's not known how common plate armour was during the Ming dynasty, and no other source mentions it. In the 17th century the Qing army was equipped with both lamellar and brigandine armour. During the 18th century, the Qianlong Emperor said, "Our old Manchu customs respect righteousness and revere justice. Young and old, none are ashamed to fight for them. But after enjoying such a long period of peace, inevitably, people want to avoid putting on armor and joining the ranks of war. By the 19th century most Qing armour were purely for show. They kept the outer studs of brigandine armour for aesthetic purposes but omitted the protective iron plates. The Kangxi Emperor in ceremonial armour. Qianlong Emperor in ceremonial armour. Su Yuanchun , who fought in the Sino-French War Ming shield equipped with fire lances. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of armor. See also: Military of the Warring States. Army of the Han dynasty. Main article: Military history of the Three Kingdoms. Military history of the Jin dynasty — and the Sixteen Kingdoms — Military history of the Northern and Southern dynasties. Northern Qi soldier. Western Wei cavalry. Military history of the Sui—Tang dynasties. Tang soldier wearing a combination of mail, cord and plaque, and mountain pattern armour. Military history of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. Military history of the Song dynasty. Mongolian armour. Army of the Ming dynasty. Ming arm guards, thigh armour, and back plate from the Wubei Yaolue. Nanyue iron lamellar armour. Former Yan cavalry in procession. Northern Wei cavalry. Northern Yan chanfron. Northern Qi cavalry. Khitan cavalry. Jurchen cavalry..

In Asian ring armour on leather instance Li Shimin 's cousin, Li Daoxuanwas able to cut his way through the entire enemy mass of Xia soldiers and then cut his way back again, repeating the operation several times before the battle was won, at which point he had so many arrows sticking out of his armour that he looked like a "porcupine. Infantry armour became more common in the Tang era and roughly 60 percent of active soldiers were equipped with armour of some kind. For instance 10, suits of iron armour were captured Asian ring armour on leather the Goguryeo—Tang War.

Brigandine

Private ownership of military equipment such as horse armour, long lances, and crossbows was prohibited. Possession was taken as intent of rebellion or treason.

If a deficiency was discovered, the corresponding soldier was ordered to pay restitution. Soldiers not on active duty were expected to pay Asian ring armour on leather themselves, although "professional" soldiers were given tax exemptions.

Li Shimin's elite cavalry forces were known to have worn distinctive black "iron clad" armour, [46] but heavy cavalry declined as Turkic influence became more prevalent and light cavalry became the dominant mode of mounted warfare. Tang expeditionary forces to Central Asia preferred a mixture of light and heavy Chinese horse archers.

After the An Lushan rebellion of the mid 9th century and losing the northwestern pastures to the TibetansChinese cavalry almost disappeared altogether as a relevant military force. Tang iron lamellae were between 9. Mail was already known to the Chinese since they first encountered it in AD when their allies in the nation of Kuchi arrived wearing "armor Asian ring armour on leather to chains".

However mail armour was not mentioned again until AD when a tributary mission from Samarkand presented to the Tang emperor a coat of "link armour". Mail was later improved on during the Song dynasty to withstand arrows better, by which H. Russell Asian ring armour on leather believes Air force arkansas using interlocked rings.

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References to mountain pattern armour Chinese: There are also no surviving examples of it. Everything that is known about mountain pattern armour comes from paintings and statues, typically of the Song and Ming periods. It is not unique to China and has been found in depictions in Korea, Vietnam, Japan, and even Thailand, however non-religious depictions are limited to only China, Korea, and Vietnam. Reconstruction projects of this type of armour have largely failed to produce good results.

The pieces are interlocked and riveted to a cloth or leather backing. It covers the torso, shoulders and thighs while remaining comfortable and flexible enough to allow movement.

Also during this time, senior Chinese officers used mirror armour Chinese: This overall design was called "shining armor" Chinese: There is an alternative theory that mountain pattern armour is simply a result here very stylistic depictions of mail armour, but known depictions of mail armour in Chinese art do not match with mountain pattern armour either.

Close up view of the Ming dynasty painting "Departure Herald" showing riders wearing lamellar and mountain pattern armour. Ming depiction of mail armour - it looks like scale, but this was a common artistic convention. The text says "steel wire connecting ring armour. During the wars between the Later Zhou and Southern Tangcivilians on the Tang side formed "White Armor Armies", named after the white paper armour they wore.

These Tang civilian armies experienced some success in driving off small Asian ring armour on leather of Zhou forces but avoided confrontation with the larger army. Later Ming texts provide descriptions of paper armour. One version was made of silk paper and functioned as a gambeson, worn under other armour or by itself.

In the Victorian Asian ring armour on leather the term "mail" was used fancifully for any form of metallic body armour. Modern historians reserve the term "mail" for armour formed of an interlinked mesh of metal rings. The Bayeux Tapestry has been misinterpreted as depicting several different types of armour. It is generally acknowledged today that virtually all the armour on the tapestry is standard mail armour and not "ring mail", "trellised mail" or "mascled mail" or any other Victorian misinterpretation.

Ring armour was believed to be Asian ring armour on leather leather or textile item of clothing a Asian ring armour on leather, or trousers with a visit web page number of metal rings sewn or tied directly Asian ring armour on leather the foundation garment. Unlike mail armour, the rings are not physically interlocked with each other. Chain mailalso called Mailform of body armour worn by European knights and other military men throughout most of the medieval period.

An early form of mail, made by sewing iron rings to fabric or leather, was worn in late Roman times and may have originated in Asia, where such mail continued to be worn for many centuries. Medieval armourers improved on the early version by fabricating mail independent of cloth or leather and by interlacing the rings, which were firmly closed by welding or riveting. Asian ring armour on leather earlier versions, such as that worn by Charlemagne in a representation ofthe shirt, or coat, was short, with a separate sleeve for the sword arm.

In later models, such as those depicted in the Bayeux tapestrythe coat was long, fully sleeved, and divided to facilitate horseback riding.

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A hood, usually fitting under a Asian ring armour on leathercovered the head and neck. A padded undergarment was worn to protect against bruises. By the 12th century, mail was fitted to feet and legs, and to hands in the form of mittens or gauntlets. The addition of plates to increase protection for breast and back gradually evolved in the 14th century into complete plate armour, displacing mail.

Sexy chubby Watch PORN Movies Sweaty pussy. Another version used thicker, more flexible paper, hammered soft, and fastened with studs. It's said that this type of paper armour performed better when soaked with water. Paper armour was still worn by the Hui people in Yunnan in the late 19th century. Bark paper armour in layers of thirty to sixty sheets in addition to silk and cotton was considered to be fairly good protection against musket balls and bayonets, which got stuck in the layers of paper, but not breech loading rifles at close quarters. The Khitans of the Liao dynasty employed heavy armoured cavalry as the core of their army. In battle they arrayed light cavalry in the front and two layers of armoured cavalry in the back. Even foragers were armoured. Unlike some other empires originating from nomadic tribes, the Khitans preferred to fight in dense heavy cavalry formations rather than the wide formations of horse archers. During the Song dynasty — it became fashionable to create warts on pieces of armour to imitate cold forged steel, a product typically produced by non-Han people in modern Qinghai. Warts created from cold work were actually spots of higher carbon in the original steel, thus aesthetic warts on non-cold forged steel served no purpose. According to Shen Kuo , armour constructed of cold forged steel was impenetrable to arrows shot at a distance of 50 paces. Even if the arrow happened to hit a drill hole, the arrowhead was the one which was ruined. The History of Song notes that Song "tools of war were exceedingly effective, never before seen in recent times," [63] and "their weapons and armor were very good", [63] but "their troops weren't always effective. Song dynasty soldiers wearing lamellar and mountain pattern armour. The Western Xia made modest use of heavy cavalry, of which it had 3, at its height. The Jurchens had a reputation for making high quality armour and weapons. The Jurchen army was organized into units of a thousand and a hundred. Every hundred was composed of two fifty men social and economic units called punian. Each punian was supposed to have 20 men equipped with armour and lances or halberds. These 20 men formed a standard two rank five deep battle formation while the others formed three ranks of archers. In the Jurchens used cast iron bombs against the Mongols at the siege of Kaifeng. The History of Jin states that the fire created by the blast could penetrate even iron armour. According to Meng Hong , the reason for the Mongols ' success was that they possessed more iron than previous steppe peoples. Both Chinese and European sources concur that Mongols wore substantial armour capable of stopping arrows. A Song source notes that one way to pierce heavily clad Mongol warriors was to use small arrows capable of entering the eye slits of their helmet. However he also mentions that the Mongols feared crossbows. Giovanni da Pian del Carpine describing Mongol lamellar armour:. The upper part of their helmet is of iron or steel, while that part guarding the neck and throat is of leather. Whereas the majority wear leather armour, some have their harness completely wrought from iron, which is made in the following manner. They beat out in large numbers thin iron plates a finger broad and a full hand long. In each they bore eight small holes, through which they pull three straight leather thongs. Thereupon they arrange these plates one above another, as it were, ascending by degrees, and tie the plates to the thongs mentioned by means of other small and tender thongs drawn through the holes. And in the upper part they fasten a single, small thong, doubled on each side, and sewn on to another, that the plates may be well and tightly knit together. Thus a uniform protection is effected by these plates, and such like armour is made for their horses as well as for their men. It is so highly polished that a man may mirror his face in it. Yuan plate armour, unearthed at Ongniud Banner , Inner Mongolia. Retrieved 7 July New York: Armour types. Body armor Vehicle armour. Ceramic plate Doron Plate. Banded mail. Portal Category: Japanese weapons, armour and equipment. Glossary of Japanese swords Horimono Japanese sword mountings Japanese sword polishing Japanese swordsmithing Tameshigiri. Some kuyaks had large "mirror" plates or "shields" attached to the outside. Some descriptions also mention cotton wool padding. There were also brigandine helmets called "kuyak hats" that used the same principle of construction as the kuyak body armour. Kikko is the Japanese form of brigandine. Kikko were used only relatively recently, during the 16th century. Kikko comes in many forms including, coats, vests, gloves, arm and thigh protectors, and helmet neck guards. Kikko armour was worn as a standalone defense or under other types of armour as additional protection. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Brigantine. For the video game, see Brigandine video game. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Arms and Armour of the Medieval Knight. Saturn Books, London, A Distant Mirror. Alfred A. They spread its use into North Africa where it was adopted by Mamluk Egyptians and the Sudanese who produced it until the early 20th century. Ottoman mail was constructed with alternating rows of solid links and round riveted links. The Persians used mail armour as well as mail and plate armour. Persian mail and Ottoman mail were often quite similar in appearance. Mail was introduced to China when its allies in Central Asia paid tribute to the Tang Emperor in by giving him a coat of "link armour" assumed to be mail. China first encountered the armour in when its allies in the nation of Kuchi arrived wearing "armour similar to chains". Once in China, mail was imported but was not produced widely. Due to its flexibility, comfort, and rarity, it was typically the armour of high-ranking guards and those who could afford the exotic import to show off their social status rather than the armour of the rank and file, who used more common brigandine, scale, and lamellar types. However, it was one of the only military products that China imported from foreigners. Mail spread to Korea slightly later where it was imported as the armour of imperial guards and generals. In Japan mail is called kusari which means chain. When the word kusari is used in conjunction with an armoured item it usually means that mail makes up the majority of the armour composition. Kusari jackets , hoods , gloves , vests , shin , shoulder, thigh guards , and other armoured clothing were produced, even kusari tabi socks. Kusari was used in samurai armour at least from the time of the Mongol invasion s but particularly from the Nambokucho period — Riveted kusari was known and used in Japan. Introduction by H. Its invention is credited to Fukushima Dembei Kunitaka, pupil, of Hojo Awa no Kami Ujifusa, but it is also said to be derived directly from foreign models. It is heavy because the links are tinned biakuro-nagashi and these are also sharp-edged because they are punched out of iron plate [36]. Butted and or split twisted links made up the majority of kusari links used by the Japanese. Links were either butted together meaning that the ends touched each other and were not riveted, or the kusari was constructed with links where the wire was turned or twisted [37] two or more times; these split links are similar to the modern split ring commonly used on keychains. The rings were lacquered black to prevent rusting, and were always stitched onto a backing of cloth or leather. The kusari was sometimes concealed entirely between layers of cloth. Kusari gusoku or chain armour was commonly used during the Edo period to as a stand-alone defense. According to George Cameron Stone. Entire suits of mail kusari gusoku were worn on occasions, sometimes under the ordinary clothing [39]. Ian Bottomley in his book Arms and Armor of the Samurai: The History of Weaponry in Ancient Japan [40] shows a picture of a kusari armour and mentions kusari katabira chain jackets with detachable arms being worn by samurai police officials during the Edo period. The end of the samurai era in the s, along with the ban on wearing swords in public, marked the end of any practical use for mail and other armour in Japan. Japan turned to a conscription army and uniforms replaced armour. Mail armour provided an effective defense against slashing blows by edged weapons and some forms of penetration by many thrusting and piercing weapons; in fact, a study conducted at the Royal Armouries at Leeds concluded that "it is almost impossible to penetrate using any conventional medieval weapon". Mail, if a warrior could afford it, provided a significant advantage when combined with competent fighting techniques. When the mail was not riveted, a thrust from most sharp weapons could penetrate it. However, when mail was riveted, only a strong well-placed thrust from certain spears, or thin or dedicated mail-piercing swords like the estoc could penetrate, and a pollaxe or halberd blow could break through the armour. Strong projectile weapons such as stronger self bows, recurve bows, and crossbows could also penetrate riveted mail. The flexibility of mail meant that a blow would often injure the wearer, [47] potentially causing serious bruising or fractures, and it was a poor defence against head trauma. Mail-clad warriors typically wore separate rigid helms over their mail coifs for head protection. The advantage of chain mail is that it is quite flexible yet relatively impervious to slashing strokes though a thrusting weapon can force the rings apart in spite of their riveted closure. In the form of a simple shirt, mail was worn throughout the Roman Empire and beyond…. Charlemagne , king of the Franks — , king of the Lombards — , and first emperor — of the Romans and of what was later called the Holy Roman Empire. Bayeux Tapestry , medieval embroidery depicting the Norman Conquest of England in , remarkable as a work of art and important as a source for 11th-century history. The tapestry is…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About Chain mail 4 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References major reference In military technology: Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 11 January , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. European butted ring chainmail armour [1]. Linen Schiessjoppe, th C..

See also armour. Monica leigh shower naked. Chain mailalso called Mailform of body armour worn by European knights and other military men throughout most of the medieval period.

Traditional Asian armour

An early form of mail, made by sewing iron rings to fabric or leather, was worn in late Roman times and may have originated in Asia, where such mail continued to be worn for many centuries. Medieval armourers improved on the early version by fabricating mail independent of cloth or leather and by interlacing the rings, which were firmly closed by welding or riveting. In Asian ring armour on leather versions, such as that worn by Charlemagne in a representation ofthe shirt, or coat, was short, with a separate sleeve for the sword arm.

In later models, such as those depicted in the Bayeux tapestrythe coat was long, fully sleeved, and divided to facilitate horseback riding. A hood, usually fitting under a helmetcovered the head and Asian ring armour on leather.

Xxx sites Watch Porn Videos Miosotis pornstar. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Arms and Armour of the Medieval Knight. Saturn Books, London, A Distant Mirror. Alfred A. Knopf, NY Russell Robinson 1 March Oriental Armour. Courier Dover Publications. Retrieved 20 February The costume of China, illustrated in forty-eight coloured engravings. Bulmer and Co. Retrieved May 7, This dress of the troops is clumsy, inconvenient, and inimical to the performance of military exercises, yet a battalion thus equipped has, at some distance, a splendid and even warlike appearance; but on closer inspection these coats of mail are found to be nothing more than quilted nankeen , enriched with thin plates of metal, surrounded with studs, which gives the tout-ensemble very much the appearance of armour. Dated late 15th century. The description: A soft type of armour which bears the name of the kuyak, also with a kuyak helmet 15th century ". Bobrov and Y. Description of ancient Tsar's utensil, clothes, weapons, armours and trappings, extracted from manuscripts of the Archives of Moscow - Sanct-Petersburg, ; A. Lamellae on the upper body were 7cm x 6cm, the lower body 9cm x 6. Lamellae pieces on cavalrymen were 8cm x 5. Six groups of armour have been identified in the Terracotta Army corresponding to rank and military division. Ordinary soldiers are outfitted with no armour at all, cavalrymen with armour that covered the chest, armed infantry with armour covering the torso and shoulders, low-ranking officers with armour using large lamellae pieces, middle-ranking officers with shorter armour covering the torso and waist or just the breast, but with decorations such as ribbons, and generals with a distinctive coat showing torso armour and ribbons to signify their status. None of the terracotta soldiers have been found wearing a helmet or holding a shield. The generals wear a pheasant-tail headdress while middle ranking officers wear a long flat cap. Both armed infantry and cavalrymen have soft caps, but while the infantry cap accommodates the top knot, the cap for cavalyrmen is flat and tied below the chin. There is some evidence that armour for horses might have existed for Qin cavalry judging by lamellae pieces too large for human use, but they are too damaged by fires to be reconstructed. Han dynasty armour was largely the same as the Qin dynasty with minor variations. Infantry wore suits of lacquered rawhide, hardened and lacquered leather [or rawhide? A suit of iron armour dating to the Western Han period consisted of lamellae pieces. During the late 2nd century BC, the government created a monopoly on the ironworks, which may have caused a decrease in quality of iron and armour. Bu Shi claimed that the resulting products were inferior because they were made to meet quotas rather than for practical use. These monopolies as debated in the Discourses on Salt and Iron were abolished by the beginning of the 1st century AD. In AD, Cui Shi made similar complaints about the issue of quality control in government production due to corruption: Greedy officers fight over the materials, and shifty craftsmen cheat them Iron [i. Composite bows were considered effective against unarmoured enemies at yards, and against armoured opponents at 65 yards. Han iron lamellar armour gilded with silver and gold, unearthed in a tomb of Linzi District , Shandong Province. By the Three Kingdoms period many cavalrymen wore armour and some horses were equipped with their own armour as well. In one battle, the warlord Cao Cao boasted that with only ten sets of horse armour he had faced an enemy with three hundred sets. References to "great shields" occur in their usage on the front line to protect spearmen and crossbowmen. Shields were also commonly paired with the single edged dao and used among cavalrymen. Dark armour appears in Han texts as well, but only as the attire worn by honor guards at funeral processions. The only trait known about dark armour is that it reflected the sun's rays. This probably means dark armour was made of high quality steel, which was often associated with black ferrous material. Cao Zhi mentioned three different kinds of armour, two of which were variants of "brilliant" armour:. The Previous Emperor presented your vassal with armor kai , to wit, a suit of "black-brilliant" heiguang and one of "bright-brilliant" mingguang and a suit of "double-faced" liangtang armor, but now that the present age is peaceful and the weapons and armor bingge are not of use, I request leave to turn them all over to the Armor Board kaicao to be taken care of. Brilliant armour was made of decarburized steel, which shines blue-black when polished, giving it its name. Chen Lin described brilliant armour in the following manner:. As for the armor kai then like that of Quegong of the Eastern Barbarians, It is made of the finest steel refined a hundred times; The armorer has plied his hammer, The leather-worker has made the stitching; [Adorned with] dark feathers the flashing armor jia Gleams and shines, throwing off light. Cataphract-like horse armour appeared in northeastern China in the mid 4th century during the Eastern Jin dynasty , probably as a result of Xianbei influence. By the end of the 4th century murals depicting horse armour covering the entire body were found in tombs as far as Yunnan. Sources mention the capture of thousands of "armored horses" in a single battle. Shi Hu 's bodyguard was said to have worn "fine five-colored armour" wuse xikai , which was so dazzling it blinded the eye. This was probably similar in construction to brilliant armour. During the Northern and Southern dynasties period , a style of armour called "cord and plaque" became popular, as did shields and long swords. Bright brilliant armour continued to be prominent. In AD, the Northern Wei court gave a visiting Avar chieftain a set of fine bright brilliant cavalry armour and six sets of iron cavalry armour. Deployment of armoured cavalry was common for the Northern Wei, especially among the "iron-clad" Erzhu tribe who specialized in armoured cavalry. In AD, the Western Wei general Cai Yu came to be known as "iron tiger" for his distinctive bright brilliant armour. In the 6th century, Qimu Huaiwen introduced to Northern Qi the process of 'co-fusion' steelmaking, which used metals of different carbon contents to create steel. Apparently sabers made using this method were capable of penetrating 30 armour lamellae. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. Internet URLs are the best. Thank You for Your Contribution! Uh Oh. There was a problem with your submission. Please try again later. Article History. Keep Exploring Britannica Education. Education, discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like…. Read this Article. All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 11 January , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. European butted ring chainmail armour [1]. Linen Schiessjoppe, th C. These were adopted from Persia , initially as Persian exports [ citation needed ] , and have Persian names. According to Bobrov [2] the first mail and plate armor appeared as cuisses in the Middle East , and were imported by the Golden Horde. Persian miniatures of the first half of 15th century show different combinations of mail and plate armour with lamellar armor and brigandines sometimes worn with a single round mirror plate as breast re-enforcement. The first representation of mail and plate armour as body protection is shown in Persian miniatures, which show mail and plate armour composed of relatively large plates, worn with laminar pauldrons and skirt formed from long, horizontal plates , re-enforced by a large round mirror plate. The first representation of classic mail and plate armour without lamellar elements can be seen in Baghdad's miniature which dates from From the end of the 15th century mail and plate armour began to fully replace lamellar armours. The main difference between eastern European Russian and Polish and Oriental mail and plate armor according to Bobrov is that eastern European versions usually do not have sleeves, while Oriental versions have sleeves the forearms were protected by vambraces..

A padded undergarment was worn to protect against bruises. By the 12th century, mail was fitted to feet and legs, and to hands in the form of mittens or gauntlets.

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The addition of plates to increase protection for breast and back gradually evolved in the 14th continue reading into complete plate armour, Asian ring armour on leather mail. See also armour. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate Asian ring armour on leather contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

Nagalaind sex Watch PORN Movies China00porn0. In Japan mail is called kusari which means chain. When the word kusari is used in conjunction with an armoured item it usually means that mail makes up the majority of the armour composition. Kusari jackets , hoods , gloves , vests , shin , shoulder, thigh guards , and other armoured clothing were produced, even kusari tabi socks. Kusari was used in samurai armour at least from the time of the Mongol invasion s but particularly from the Nambokucho period — Riveted kusari was known and used in Japan. Introduction by H. Its invention is credited to Fukushima Dembei Kunitaka, pupil, of Hojo Awa no Kami Ujifusa, but it is also said to be derived directly from foreign models. It is heavy because the links are tinned biakuro-nagashi and these are also sharp-edged because they are punched out of iron plate [36]. Butted and or split twisted links made up the majority of kusari links used by the Japanese. Links were either butted together meaning that the ends touched each other and were not riveted, or the kusari was constructed with links where the wire was turned or twisted [37] two or more times; these split links are similar to the modern split ring commonly used on keychains. The rings were lacquered black to prevent rusting, and were always stitched onto a backing of cloth or leather. The kusari was sometimes concealed entirely between layers of cloth. Kusari gusoku or chain armour was commonly used during the Edo period to as a stand-alone defense. According to George Cameron Stone. Entire suits of mail kusari gusoku were worn on occasions, sometimes under the ordinary clothing [39]. Ian Bottomley in his book Arms and Armor of the Samurai: The History of Weaponry in Ancient Japan [40] shows a picture of a kusari armour and mentions kusari katabira chain jackets with detachable arms being worn by samurai police officials during the Edo period. The end of the samurai era in the s, along with the ban on wearing swords in public, marked the end of any practical use for mail and other armour in Japan. Japan turned to a conscription army and uniforms replaced armour. Mail armour provided an effective defense against slashing blows by edged weapons and some forms of penetration by many thrusting and piercing weapons; in fact, a study conducted at the Royal Armouries at Leeds concluded that "it is almost impossible to penetrate using any conventional medieval weapon". Mail, if a warrior could afford it, provided a significant advantage when combined with competent fighting techniques. When the mail was not riveted, a thrust from most sharp weapons could penetrate it. However, when mail was riveted, only a strong well-placed thrust from certain spears, or thin or dedicated mail-piercing swords like the estoc could penetrate, and a pollaxe or halberd blow could break through the armour. Strong projectile weapons such as stronger self bows, recurve bows, and crossbows could also penetrate riveted mail. The flexibility of mail meant that a blow would often injure the wearer, [47] potentially causing serious bruising or fractures, and it was a poor defence against head trauma. Mail-clad warriors typically wore separate rigid helms over their mail coifs for head protection. Likewise, blunt weapons such as maces and warhammers could harm the wearer by their impact without penetrating the armour; usually a soft armour, such as gambeson , was worn under the hauberk. Medieval surgeons were very well capable of setting and caring for bone fractures resulting from blunt weapons. Several patterns of linking the rings together have been known since ancient times, with the most common being the 4-to-1 pattern where each ring is linked with four others. In Europe, the 4-to-1 pattern was completely dominant. Mail was also common in East Asia, primarily Japan, with several more patterns being utilised and an entire nomenclature developing around them. In the 4th century BC, rhinoceros armour was still used. In the following passage Guan Zhong advises Duke Huan of Qi to convert punishments to armour and weapons:. Ordain that serious crimes are to be redeemed with a suit of rhinoceros armour and one halberd, and minor crimes with a plaited leather shield and one halberd. A case should be delayed for investigation for three [days] without allowing arguments or judgements; [by the time] the case is judged [the subject will have produced] one bundle of arrows. Lamellar armour of leather, bronze and iron appeared by the mid-4th century BC. Lamellar consisted of individual armour pieces that were either riveted or laced together to form a suit of armour. One sample discovered in Yi county , Hebei Province was composed of 89 lamellae. The average dimensions of the lamellae pieces were 5cm x 4cm. In the 3rd century BC, both iron weapons and armour became more common. It was considered a common occurrence in ancient China for commoners or peasants to kill a lord with a well aimed crossbow bolt, regardless of whatever armour he might have been wearing at the time. Shun taught the ways of good government for the following three years, and then took up shield and battle-ax and performed the war dance, and the Miao submitted. But in the war with the Gonggong, men used iron lances with steel heads that reached to the enemy, so that unless one was protected by a stout helmet and armor he was likely to be wounded. Hence shields and battle-axes served for ancient times, but no longer serve today. So I say that as circumstances change the ways of dealing with them alter too. Armour was mostly restricted to elite guard units and each state distributed armour in their own ways. The state of Chu favorited elite armoured crossbow units known for their endurance, and were capable of marching km 'without resting. According to Su Qin , the state of Han made the best weapons, capable of cleaving through the strongest armour, shields, leather boots and helmets. By the end of the 3rd century BC at least a few horsemen wore armour of some kind. Warring States bronze helmet. The Qin calculated fines for more severe crimes in terms of one or two coats of armour, lower crimes in terms of shields, and the lowest in terms of coins. Dimensions of lamellae used for charioteer armour varies between the upper body, lower body, and arms. Lamellae on the upper body were 7cm x 6cm, the lower body 9cm x 6. Lamellae pieces on cavalrymen were 8cm x 5. Six groups of armour have been identified in the Terracotta Army corresponding to rank and military division. Ordinary soldiers are outfitted with no armour at all, cavalrymen with armour that covered the chest, armed infantry with armour covering the torso and shoulders, low-ranking officers with armour using large lamellae pieces, middle-ranking officers with shorter armour covering the torso and waist or just the breast, but with decorations such as ribbons, and generals with a distinctive coat showing torso armour and ribbons to signify their status. None of the terracotta soldiers have been found wearing a helmet or holding a shield. The generals wear a pheasant-tail headdress while middle ranking officers wear a long flat cap. Both armed infantry and cavalrymen have soft caps, but while the infantry cap accommodates the top knot, the cap for cavalyrmen is flat and tied below the chin. There is some evidence that armour for horses might have existed for Qin cavalry judging by lamellae pieces too large for human use, but they are too damaged by fires to be reconstructed. Han dynasty armour was largely the same as the Qin dynasty with minor variations. Infantry wore suits of lacquered rawhide, hardened and lacquered leather [or rawhide? Retrieved May 7, This dress of the troops is clumsy, inconvenient, and inimical to the performance of military exercises, yet a battalion thus equipped has, at some distance, a splendid and even warlike appearance; but on closer inspection these coats of mail are found to be nothing more than quilted nankeen , enriched with thin plates of metal, surrounded with studs, which gives the tout-ensemble very much the appearance of armour. Dated late 15th century. The description: A soft type of armour which bears the name of the kuyak, also with a kuyak helmet 15th century ". Bobrov and Y. Description of ancient Tsar's utensil, clothes, weapons, armours and trappings, extracted from manuscripts of the Archives of Moscow - Sanct-Petersburg, ; A. Historical description of the clothes and weapons of Russian troops - ; Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary ; and others. Bryant; Angus McBride The samurai: Osprey Publishing. In All Countries and in All Times. Crown Publishers. Components of medieval European armour. Visor Falling buffe. Aventail Bevor Gorget Pixane. Japanese weapons, armour and equipment. Glossary of Japanese swords Horimono Japanese sword mountings Japanese sword polishing Japanese swordsmithing Tameshigiri. Retrieved from " https: Medieval armour Body armor Plate armour Asian armour Byzantine military equipment. Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references Wikipedia introduction cleanup from August All pages needing cleanup Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from August All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify Articles with multiple maintenance issues All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from May Commons category link is on Wikidata Commons category link is locally defined. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. The Armourer and His Craft. Philippe Contamine: Claude Blair , European Armour , London: Armour types. Body armor Vehicle armour. Bechter moskiewski Muscovy Mail-and-Plate - Russian type of mail and plate armour Tatami-do - Japanese type of mail and plate armour de: Baju Lamina - Indonesian type of mail and plate armour de: Hopson, Arms and Armor of the Samurai: The History of Weaponry in Ancient Japan , pp. Armour types. Charlemagne , king of the Franks — , king of the Lombards — , and first emperor — of the Romans and of what was later called the Holy Roman Empire. Bayeux Tapestry , medieval embroidery depicting the Norman Conquest of England in , remarkable as a work of art and important as a source for 11th-century history. The tapestry is…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About Chain mail 4 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References major reference In military technology: Mail armour development In armour:.

Written By: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The availability to mounted warrior elites of Asian ring armour on leather armour of high quality, particularly mail, was instrumental in the fall of Rome and in the establishment of European feudalism.

Mail and plate armour

Until the 10th century, however, there was little qualitative difference between the Asian ring armour on leather armour of the…. The first practical body armour of iron was mail, which made its appearance source Hellenistic times but became common only during the Roman Imperial period.

Bronze mail was impractical because of the insufficient strength of the alloy. Mail, or chain mail, was made of…. The advantage of chain mail is that it is quite flexible yet relatively impervious to Asian ring armour on leather strokes though a thrusting weapon can force the rings apart in spite of their riveted closure.

Asian ring armour on leather

In the form of a simple shirt, mail was worn throughout the Roman Empire and beyond…. Charlemagneking of the Franks —king of Asian ring armour on leather Lombards —and first emperor — of the Romans and of what was later called the Holy Roman Empire. Bayeux Tapestrymedieval embroidery depicting the Norman Conquest of England Asian ring armour on leatherremarkable as a work of art and Asian ring armour on leather as a source for 11th-century history.

The tapestry is…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About Chain mail 4 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References major reference In military technology: Mail armour development In armour: Premodern armour In armour: Premodern armour In military technology: Help us improve this article!

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Asian ring armour on leather

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